Biography of Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Biography of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, popularly known as “Sher-e Punjab”, was the most famous king of the Sikh Empire. He was a man who not only kept Punjab united as a strong province, but also did not allow the British to wander near his empire while he was alive. This Mahavir of Punjab won many fierce wars on the strength of his courage and valor. The name of Maharaja Ranjit Singh is written in the golden letters of Indian history.

Biography of Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Biography of Maharaja Ranjit Singh – Maharaja Ranjit Singh History

On April 12, 1801, Ranjit Singh assumed the title of Maharaja. He was crowned by a descendant of Guru Nanak. He made Lahore his capital and moved towards Amritsar in 1802. Surajchakia, father of Ranjit Singh, was the head of the Missal. Ranjit Singh suffered from smallpox in his childhood, due to which his left eye became blind. British historian J.J. According to T. Wheeler “If he had been a generation older, he would have conquered the whole of India.” Maharaja Ranjit Singh was not educated, but gave great encouragement to education and art in his kingdom. He established law and order in Punjab and never punished anyone.

Early Life – Early Life of Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh / Ranjit Singh was born on 13 November 1780 in the house of Jatta Sikh Maharaja Maha Singh of Gujranwala (now Pakistan). In those days, Punjab was ruled by Sikhs and Afghans who divided the entire region into several examples. Ranjit’s father Maha Singh Sukrachakia was the commander of the Missal. Located in western Punjab, the area was headquartered in Gujranwala. Maharaja Ranjit Singh lost his eyesight at a young age due to smallpox. When he was just 12 years old, his father passed away and the entire burden of the royalty fell on his shoulders. At the age of playing, little Ranjit Singh was made the leader of the Missal, and he performed that responsibility well. Ranjit Singh was related to ‘Sukar Chakia’, one of the twelve Sikh examples.
Ranjit Singh, the son of Maha Singh and Raj Kaur, was well-versed in horse riding, fencing, and other fighting skills from the age of ten. At a young age, Ranjit Singh along with his father Maha Singh started going in different military campaigns. Maharaja Ranjit Singh did not receive any formal education, he was illiterate.
At the age of 15, he was married to the daughter of the ‘Kanhaiya Missal’ chieftain and for many years his activities were directed by his ambitious widow mother-in-law Sadakour. The second marriage with the daughter of the Nakkis made Ranjit Singh important among the Sikh princely states (Samantas). Zinda Rani was the fifth queen of Ranjit Singh and the mother of his youngest son Dalip Singh.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a very simple person by nature. Even after attaining the title of Maharaja, Ranjit Singh used to sit on the land with his courtiers. He was famous for his liberal nature, justice and a high sense of equality for all religions. He was always working to remove the sufferings and sufferings of his subjects. It was as if their religion was the economic prosperity and protection of their subjects. Maharaja Ranjit Singh ruled for nearly 40 years. He made his kingdom so powerful and prosperous that an invading army would not have dared to raise the eyes of his empire during his lifetime.

Government policy – Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Initially, his rule was only on a small plot and military force was also limited. Between 1793 AD and 1798 AD, the continuous invasions of Afghan ruler Jamanshah caused so much chaos in the Punjab that nineteen year old Ranjit Singh took over Lahore in the month of July 1799 AD and Jamanshah accepted him as the governor of the situation. While conferring the title of King. In 1798 – 1799 AD, the ruler of Afghanistan, ‘Zaman Shah’ attacked Punjab. On his way back, some of his cannons fell into the Chenab River. Ranjit Singh got him out and sent to him. In lieu of this service, the Zaman Shah appointed Ranjit Singh as the ruler of Lahore and conferred the title of King.
Ranjit Singh tried to increase his influence by establishing matrimonial relations with some Sikh missiles. In 1805 AD, he captured Amritsar and Jammu. Now both the political capital of Punjab (Lahore) and the religious capital (Amritsar) came under them. By this time, Napoleon of France was at his peak, so his influence did not affect India, so Lord Mints, the then Governor-General, sent messengers to Punjab, Iran and Afghanistan. On 25 April 1809, the ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ was concluded between ‘Charles Matcoff’ and Maharaja Ranjit Singh. According to the terms of the treaty, the areas on the eastern bank of the Sutlej River came under the control of the British. Ranjit Singh with French mercenaries in the Rajya Sabha as Napoleon’s power weakened, and Iran’s relations with England improved. Therefore, under these conditions, the treaty of Amritsar became necessary for Ranjit Singh.


Ranjit Singh’s administration was also important. He ruled in the name of ‘Khalsa’ despite being autocratic. His government was called ‘Sarkar Khalsa’. He circulated coins in the names of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh, but he did not encourage Gurmat. He gave high positions to the Dogars and Muslims. Fakir ‘Azizuddin’ was his foreign minister and Diwan ‘Dinanath’ was his finance minister.

Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh – Maharaja Ranjit Singh Death

Prachanda the mighty Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who made his place in Indian history, died on June 7, 1839, at the age of 58. He had his last breath in Lahore. Even after centuries, he is remembered for his courage and valor. The credit of organizing the first Sikh Khalsa army also goes to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. After his death his son Maharaja Kharak Singh took over his throne.

Kohinoor and Ranjit Singh – Kohinoor and Maharaja Ranjit Singh

In 1812, when Punjab was ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, he started a campaign to free Kashmir from the clutches of Atamohammad, the Subedar of Kashmir. Fearful of this campaign, Atma Mohammed left Kashmir. This was not the only reason behind the Kashmir campaign. Actually, the real reason behind this was the prized ‘Kohinoor’ diamond. Kohinoor Heera Atamohammad held Shahshuja, the ruler of Afghanistan defeated by Mahmud Shah, in the fort of Shergarh. To get her free from captivity, her Begum Wafa Begum came to Lahore and prayed to Maharaja Ranjit Singh and said – “Please oblige me to release my husband from Atma Mohammed’s captivity, offering you the prized Kohinoor diamond in exchange for this favor Will give.
After Shahshuja was imprisoned, Wafa Begum was the ruler of Afghanistan in those days. Maharaja Ranjiti Singh himself wanted him to liberate Kashmir from Atamohammad. When the right time came, Maharaja Ranjit Singh liberated Kashmir. His Diwan Mohkamchand surrounded the fort of Shergarh and released Wafa Begum’s husband Shahshuja to Lahore near Wafa Begum and fulfilled his promise.
Rajkumar Kharagsingh accommodated them in Mubarak Haveli. But Wafa Begum delayed the offering of Kohinoor diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh as promised. Even several months passed. When the Maharaja asked Shahshuja about the Kohinoor diamond, both he and his begum started making excuses. When more emphasis was given, he handed over a fake diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which proved to be a fake test of jewelers. Ranjit Singh was filled with anger and Mubarak Haveli was surrounded. Food was not served there for two days. The year 1813 AD was the first June, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh came to Shahshuja and then asked about the Kohinoor. The rascal Shahshuja hid Kohinoor in his turban. Somehow the Maharaja came to know about this. He pledged to put Shahshuja on the throne of Kabul to hand over the throne of Kabul. Then he changed his turban to Kohinoor to make him a ‘turban-changed brother’ (a jewel).
Wafa Begum, sitting in the curtain, understood the cleverness of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Now Kohinoor had reached Maharaja Ranjit Singh and he was satisfied that he had liberated Kashmir. He wished to offer the Kohinoor diamond to the iconic Lord Jagannath in the temple of Jagannathpuri. He was famous for offering mana gold to Hindu temples. But his wish could not be fulfilled.
After the death of Ranjit Singh, the British attacked the Sikhs in 1845. In the Ferozepur area, the Sikh army was bravely fighting the British, but the commander of the Sikh army, Lalsingh, betrayed and left the front and fled to Lahore. Due to this the Sikh army lost. The British took the Kohinoor diamond from the Sikhs. Some people say that the British had annexed the Kohinoor in London only from Ranjiti Singh’s son Dilip Singh. The jewelers carved the Kohinoor for 1 month and 8 days and then it was taken by Queen Victoria in her crown.

Interesting things to Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Maharaja ranjit singh ki kahani)

  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh had the title of “Maharaja”, but he preferred to call himself Singh Sahab. Ranjit Singh did not even issue coins in his own name but the name of Baba Guru Nanak was on the coins.
  • Despite being illiterate, Ranjit Singh started the practice of issuing written orders instead of verbal orders for which educated people were appointed.
  • Ranjit Singh was not seated on the throne, instead he used to sit in his chair and hold a court. He did not put anything extraordinary in his turban or costume.
  • He used to say to his courtiers, “I am a farmer and a soldier, I don’t need any appearance. My sword creates the difference in me that I need. “

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